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"modern panjistani language from pohwari/mirpuri" by m. afzal ;2001, London; UK.
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This topic is about Modern Panjistani lanaguge of northern panjab/upper paksitan and azad kashmir and its evlotion from the old northern lahnda (or Pothwari/Mirpuri/Dhanni/Poonchi) dialect cluster ascertained by Sir geroge gierson, Prof. C. Shackle and m. afzal, london, uk ; 1997.
The 3 LAHNDA Lanaguges.
from Northern Lahnda to Modern Panjistani language.Edit
Modern Panjistani (formly many terms used eg Northern Lahnda or Pothwari, Mirpuri, Western Pahari, Dhanni, Jehlumi, Poonchi, Northern Panjabi) Language Edit
Panjistani was the term formulated in the 2000s by m. afzal and others and the standard language is based on the literary varieties of Pothwari-Pahari-Mirpuri or "Northern Lahnda" cluster of Northern Panjab (Panjistan Region) and Kashmir (covering pothohar, Jehlum, shahpur, Chakwal and Mirpur-Poonch regions of azad kashmir) It has been noted by Gierson and others that Kashmiri/Dadic langauges has had very large influnce on modern panjistani (Pothwari-Mirpuri-Pahari) langauge.
The origins of Panjistani comes from Panjistan Region (for Northen Panjab) which most probably means the land of 5 localities or areas e.g. Rawalpindi, Jehlum, Chalwal, Poonch, and Mirpur(parts of Kashmir).
It is spoken by aprrox. 10-12 million people of Nothern Pakistan and Jummu and Kashmir presently and it is the 5th most popular and very important langauge in the country nowdays.
Present time. Edit
It is widely spoken in the northern parts of Pakistan and in Kashmir, Major places are Chakwal,Jehlum, Poonch, Rawalpindi and Mirpur. It is psuedo-officially written in the Perso-Arabic script at the regional level presntly. Some older Speakers of Kashmiri/Urdu who write in the Perso-Arabic style and before did not regard Panjistani as a literary language. Now when Modern Panjistani is written, the Perso-Arabic orthography is utilised or it is written in Roman Panjistani, which is used for the writing of Kashmiri/Urdu and other regional lanaguges in the Latin script. This is largely the case in the UK where a large percentage of panjistani (Pahari-Potohari) speakers reside, who are found to constitute the majority of the expatriate Pakistani (from greater Potohar or panjistan plateau e.g. Gujar Khan, Rawalpindi, Kahuta etc.) and Jammu & Kashmir region. Panjistani or as the kashmiri community somtimes call it "Pahari" is widely spoken and is used in many traditional poetry due to its richness, the most famous of which is by the poet Mian Muhammad Bakhsh, whose poetry is still performed and enjoyed to this present day in North-Eastern Punjab (Panjistan region) and Jammu Kashmir. Panjistani is an interestingly unique language that has some resemblance and close relations to hindko, seariki,Eastern or Jurdgha Punjabi, but more interestingly has Dardic/Kashmiri inflections to the soundings of the words.
The Main Lahnda Langauges Edit
Modern classification of Lahnda from Indo-Aryan
Indo-Aryan (Sanskirt or Indic)
1)Panjistani, Pothwari/mirpuri/pahari, [pjt] (Pakistan/Kashmir)
2)Seraiki, Multani/Derwali [skr] (Pakistan)
3)Hindko, Sarhadi/peshwari/western panjandi [hno] (Pakistan)
2)Eastern or Sardari Panjabi (Majhi)
Lahnda means "western" in Punjabi. It was coined by linguists for a group which had no local name. Southern lahnda varieties are locally called Saraiki, western lahnda and northern lahnda varieties Hindko and Panjistani respectively.
Classification of Lahnda clusters into 3 major literary languagesEdit
Since Sindhi, Eastern Punjabi, Urdu Dogri and Hindi are spoken in a region that has witnessed significant ethnic and identity conflict, all have been exposed to the dialect versus language question. Each of these languages possesses a central standard on which its literature is based, and from which there are multiple dialectal variations. Recently three of Lahanda Varieties Saraiki Modern Panjistani and Hindko are standardized as language. The development of the standard written language began after the founding of Pakistan in 1947, driven by a regionalist political movements.:838 The national census of Pakistan has tabulated the prevalence of Saraiki Panjistani (pothwari-pahari-mirpuri-poonchi) and Hindko speakers since 1981.:46.
The three main varieties of Lahnda sub-groups are:
(2) Hindko proper
formerly a problematic group of northern dialects in need of a linguistic survey: Sawain (Sohain), Hindki of Hazara (Kagani), Tinauli, Dhundi-Kairali, Chibhali and Punchhi.
Recently this "Northern Lahnda" cluster (including mirpur panjabi? /mirpuri lahnda/Dhanni/poonchi) has become now part of "Greater Panjistani" language.
older names: Mirpuri, Poonchi, Northern Lahnda, North Panjabi, Western Pahari, Dhanni, Jehlumi, Pothwari/Pothohari).
This is now considered a proper and standardised language of Northern Punjab (so-called North Panjab or Panjistan region) is spoken in northern parts of pak. Punjab and some regions of Kashmir. The area where panjistani is spoken extends in the north from Muzaffarabad to as far south as Jhelum, Gujar Khan, Chakwal and Rawalpindi. [phr] 49,440 (2000 WCD). Murree Hills north of Rawalpindi (Pindiwali), and east to Bhimber. Poonchi is east of Rawalakot. Alternate names: Potwari, Pothohari, Potohari, Chibhali, Dhundi-Kairali. Dialects: Pahari (Dhundi-Kairali), Pothwari (Potwari), Chibhali, Punchhi (Poonchi), Mirpuri. Pahari means 'hill language' referring to a string of divergent dialects, some of which may be separate languages. A dialect chain with Panjabi and Hindko. Closeness to western Pahari is unknown. Lexical similarity 76% to 83% among varieties called 'Pahari' wetren panjistani, 'Potwari/eastern panjistani', and sometimes called 'Southern Hindko' in Mansehra, Muzaffarabad, and Jammun. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
(older names:Western Lahnda, Peshawari, Ghebi, Kohati, Jandali, Chachi).
This language is spoken in north west Pakistani Punjab and North-West Frontier Province mainly Hindko is spoken in districts of Peshawar, Nowshera,Swabi, Kohat, Mansehra, Abbottabad, Harpur, Attock and the lower half of Neelum District.
(older names:Derwali, Multani , also Southern Lahnda by some experts).
this is spoken in Pakistani Punjab. It quite possibly differs more than any other dialect of eastren or jurgdha Punjabi. It becomes more and more different as you move down south, as the influence of Sindhi increases. Saraiki itself is Sindhi word and means northern.It is now considered as separate language, instead of merely a dialect of Punjabi.Riasati,Multani,Thalochri and Derawali are sub-dialects of Saraiki.It is mostly spoken in southern and western districts of Punjab,which comprises Multan, Lodhran, Bahawalpur, Mianwali, Bhakkar, Layyah, Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh, Rahim Yar Khan, southern and western parts of Khanewal,southern parts of Bahawalnagar and western parts of Khushab districts. It is also spoken by majority of population of Dera Ismail Khan district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (خیبر پښتونخوا) province, kachi plain of Balochistan, northern parts of Sindh, and cities of Hyderabad and Karachi.
all ascertained by MOHAMMAD AFZAL, LONDON, UK, 1990