Panjistani language Wiki


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Welcome to the Panjistani language WikiEdit

"modern panjistani language from pohwari/mirpuri" by m. afzal ;2001, London; UK.

Describe your topicEdit

This topic is about Modern Panjistani lanaguge of northern panjab/upper paksitan and azad kashmir and its evlotion from the old northern lahnda (or Pothwari/Mirpuri/Dhanni/Poonchi) dialect cluster ascertained by Sir geroge gierson, Prof. C. Shackle and m. afzal, london, uk ; 1997.

The 3 LAHNDA Lanaguges.


The three major Lahnda languagesJump to: navigation, search{| cellspacing="3" class="infobox" style="border-spacing: 3px; width: 22em" ! colspan="2" style="text-align: center; background-color: #c9ffd9; font-size: 125%; font-weight: bold"|Lahnda |- | colspan="2" style="text-align: center; background-color: #c9ffd9"|Western Punjabi |- ! scope="row" style="text-align: left"|Geographic distribution: |Pakistan, Ukraine |- ! scope="row" style="text-align: left"|Linguistic classification: |Indo-European

        • Lahnda

|- ! scope="row" style="text-align: left"|Subdivisions: |— |- ! scope="row" style="text-align: left"|ISO 639-2 / 5: ISO 639-3: |lah lah |} The Lahnda (Western Punjabi) is a linguistic term which refers to the dialect continuum belonging to the Indo-Aryan language family spoken in western parts of the Pakistani province of Punjab which are transitional between Majhi (Eastern/Standard Punjabi dialect) and the Sindhi language.


[hide] *1 Ethology

[edit] EthologyEdit

Lahnda means "western" in Punjabi. It was coined by linguists for a group which had no local name. Southern varieties are locally called Saraiki, and northern varieties Hindko and Panjistani.

Classification ProblematicEdit

[1][2]Dialects of Lahnda–PunjabiSince Sindhi, Punjabi, Urdu and Hindi are spoken in a region that has witnessed significant ethnic and identity conflict, all have been exposed to the dialect versus language question. Each of these languages possesses a central standard on which its literature is based, and from which there are multiple dialectal variations.[2] Recently three of Lahanda Varieties Saraiki Modern Panjistani and Hindko are standardized as language.[3] The development of the standard written language began after the founding of Pakistan in 1947, driven by a regionalist political movements.[4]:838[5] The national census of Pakistan has tabulated the prevalence of Saraiki and Hindko speakers since 1981.[6]:46. However this standardization is controversial to date because Panjistani (pothwari-pahari-mirpirui-dhanni),Saraiki, Hindko and other Lahnda varieties are also considered as dialects of mainstream Punjabi on the basis that they are mutually intelligible, morphologically and syntactically similar with standard Punjabi by a majority of local linguists such as Dulai, K. Narinder, Gill, Harjeet Singh Gill, A. Henry. Gleason (Jr.), Koul, N. Omkar, Siya Madhu Bala, Afzal Ahmed Cheema, Aamir Malik, Amar Nath [7][8][9][10] as well as modern linguistics publications such as the US National Advisory Committee-based UCLA Language Materials Project (LMP) along with modern linguists such as Lambert M. Surhone, Mariam T. Tennoe, Susan F. Henssonow, Cardona and Nataliya Ivanovna Tolstaya classifying Saraiki, Hindko and other Lahnda varieties as dialects of the Punjabi language.[11][12][13][14]

[edit] VarietiesEdit

The varieties of Lahnda are:[15]


Hindko proper


formly a problematic group of northern dialects in need of a linguistic survey: Sawain (Sohain), Hindki of Hazara (Kagani), Tinauli, Dhundi-Kairali, Chibhali and Punchhi. Recently this "North-Eastern Lahnda" cluster (including mirpur panjabi? /mirpuri lahnda) is part of "Greater Panjistani" lanaugage nowadays.

Panjistani language

(older names: Mirpuri/Northern Lahndi/Northen Panjabi/Pahari-Potohari)

This is now considered a proper and standarised language of northen Punjab is spoken in north Pakistani Punjab. The area where panjistani is spoken extends in the north from Muzaffarabad to as far south as Jhelum, Gujar Khan, Chakwal and Rawalpindi. [phr] 49,440 (2000 WCD). Murree Hills north of Rawalpindi (Pindiwali), and east to Bhimber. Poonchi is east of Rawalakot. Alternate names: Potwari, Pothohari, Potohari, Chibhali, Dhundi-Kairali. Dialects: Pahari (Dhundi-Kairali), Pothwari (Potwari), Chibhali, Punchhi (Poonchi), Mirpuri. Pahari means 'hill language' referring to a string of divergent dialects, some of which may be separate languages. A dialect chain with Panjabi and Hindko. Closeness to western Pahari is unknown. Lexical similarity 76% to 83% among varieties called 'Pahari' wetren panjistani, 'Potwari/eastern panjistani', and sometimes called 'Southern Hindko' in Mansehra, Muzaffarabad, and Jammun. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.

Hindko/Sarhadi langauge

(older names:chachi, ghebi, kohati, jandali, western Lahndi)

This language is spoken in north west Pakistani Punjab and North-West Frontier Province mainly Hindko is spoken in districts of Peshawar, Nowshera,Swabi, Kohat, Mansehra, Abbottabad, Harpur, Attock and the lower half of Neelum District.

Saraiki/multani langauge

(older names:Derwali, Multani , also Southern Lehndi by some)

this is spoken in Pakistani Punjab. It quite possibly differs more than any other dialect of eastren or jurgdha Punjabi. It becomes more and more different as you move down south, as the influence of Sindhi increases. Saraiki itself is Sindhi word and means northern.It is now considered as separate language, instead of merely a dialect of Punjabi.Riasati,Multani,Thalochri and Derawali are sub-dialects of Saraiki.It is mostly spoken in southern and western districts of Punjab,which comprises Multan, Lodhran, Bahawalpur, Mianwali, Bhakkar, Layyah, Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh, Rahim Yar Khan, southern and western parts of Khanewal,southern parts of Bahawalnagar and western parts of Khushab districts. It is also spoken by majority of population of Dera Ismail Khan district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (خیبر پښتونخوا) province, kachi plain of Balochistan, northern parts of Sindh, and cities of Hyderabad and Karachi.

all ascertained by MOHAMMAD AFZAL, LONDON, UK, 1990

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